Sammeln - Präsentieren - Studieren - Überliefern:
Die Schriftauslegung altkirchlicher Autoren in alten Katenenhandschriften und neuen Datenbanken
Tagung in Wien, 23.-25. März 2023, Aula am Campus, Spitalgasse 2, 1090 Wien
Das umfangreiche Schrifttum der altkirchlichen Autoren zur Schriftauslegung stellt – damals nicht anders als heute — die christliche Gesellschaft vor die Aufgabe, es zu erfassen und zu bewahren. Die Motivation dazu reicht von spirituellen Bedürfnissen bis hin zu wissenschaftlichem Interesse, damals wie heute. In der spätantik-frühbyzantinischen Zeit wurde dafür neben der direkten Abschrift einzelner Kommentare oder Texten wie Predigtsammlungen die Technik der Katenenhandschriften entwickelt; heute kommen zu gedruckten Büchern sowie Sammelwerken als Anthologien die neuen digitalen Möglichkeiten hinzu. Es stellen sich ähnliche Fragen: Was wird ausgewählt? Wie soll das Material erfasst und aufbereitet werden? Wieviel möchte man an zur Verfügung stehendem Wissen einbinden? Wie relevant sind die Autoren- bzw. Quellennachweise? Wie ist mit Differenzen, unterschiedlichen Meinungen, Häresien, kritischen Autoren umzugehen? Wie soll der Bibeltext präsentiert und hervorgehoben werden? Andere Varianten eingebunden werden? Sollte man alles technisch Machbare umsetzen?
Die Tagung befasst sich mit der byzantinischen Katenenüberlieferung, insbesondere zu den Psalmen, sowie auch mit den neuen technischen Möglichkeiten. Beiträge aus den Forschungsprojekten der Beteiligten, die alte und neue Perspektiven verbinden, sind willkommen.
Collecting – Presenting – Studying – Transmitting:
The Scriptural Interpretation of Early Church Authors in Old Manuscripts and New Databases
Conference in Vienna, 23-25 March 2023, Aula at the Campus, Spitalgasse 2, 1090 Vienna
The extensive literature of late antique Christian authors on the interpretation of Scripture confronts society – in past and in present – with the task of collecting and preserving it. The motivation for this ranges from spiritual needs to scientific interest, then as now. In Late Antiquity and Byzantine times, the technique of catena manuscripts was developed for this purpose, in addition to the direct copying of individual commentaries or texts such as collections of sermons; today, the new digital possibilities are added to printed works as well as collected anthologies. Similar questions arise: What is selected? How should the material be recorded and processed? How much of the available knowledge should be included? How relevant are the author and source references? How to deal with differences, divergent opinions, heresies, unorthodox authors? How should the biblical text be presented and emphasized? Are other variations to be included? Should everything technically feasible be implemented?
The conference deals with the byzantine catena tradition, especially with the Psalms, as well as with the new technical possibilities. Contributions from the research projects of the participants, combining old and new perspectives, are welcome.
List of participants
Felix Albrecht (Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen): Der Ertrag der Catena Palestinensis für die Editio critica maior des griechischen Psalters.
Patrick Andrist (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München): Towards a Typology of Apocalypse Manuscripts: Witnesses with Systematic Commentaries as Methodological Test Cases.
Cordula Bandt (BBAW, Berlin): Eusebius' Kommentare zu Ps 51-95 in direkter Überlieferung und in den Katenen.
Clark Bates (University of Birmingham): Emulating the Most Wise Bee: Using the Ps. Oecumenian Catena of Ephesians as a Case Study for Critical Editions of New Testament Catenae.
Astrid Breith (ÖAW, Wien): Die mittelhochdeutsche Katenen-Tradition am Beispiel der Handschrift Torun, Universitätsbibliothek, Rps 68/V.
Mathieu Cassin (CNRS-IRHT, Paris): How to Edit Catena on Psalms? Manuscripts, Types, Authors, Texts and Tools.
Reinhart Ceulemans (KU Leuven): The Lexeis of the Psalms and the Catena Tradition.
Barbara Crostini (Uppsala University): Dramatic Psalms: Composition and Performance in Psalter Images, Texts, and Commentaries (with special reference to Vat. gr. 752 and its catena).
Volker Henning Drecoll (Universität Tübingen): Bemerkungen zur digitalen Edition von Ps.-Basilius, Enarratio in Isaiam.
Cinzia Grifoni (ÖAW, Wien): Commented Editions of the Bible from Carolingian Europe: Features, Functions and Spread.
Tommaso Interi (Università degli Studi di Torino): Remarks on the Critical Edition of Eusebius’ Commentary on the Psalms (Ps 101-150).
Agnès Lorrain (Centre Paul Albert Février, Aix en Provence): Der Römerbriefkommentar von Theodoret in der Katena Vaticana (Vat. gr. 762): von Quellen- zur Katenenedition und zurück.
Jacopo Marcon (BBAW, Berlin): Framing Pauline Catenae: the Process of Selecting and Organizing the Scholia in Selected Manuscripts of the Pseudo-Oecumenian Catena on Romans.
Margherita Matera (Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen): A Rediscovered Witness to the Psalms: Codex Kraków, Biblioteka Jagiellońska, Berol. graec. Qu. 58 (Rahlfs 1039).
Ugo Mondini (University of Oxford): The Psalms and Manuel Philes' Metaphrasis. Rewriting, Context, and Transmission.
Andrew J. Patton (University of Birmingham): The Multiplicity of Catenae and Critical Editions.
Emanuele Scieri (University of Birmingham): Reclassifying the Multi-Layered Catena Manuscripts on the Acts of the Apostles.
Annette von Stockhausen (BBAW, Berlin): Severian von Gabala in Katenen.
Eva Tivelli (Université de Strasbourg): Manuscripts Monac. gr. 359 and Coisl. 80: Two Examples of Catena in the Tradition of the Commentary on Psalms by Theodoret of Cyrrhus.
Maria Tomadaki (Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen): The Catena Type XIV on the Psalms (CPG C27) and its Christological Aspects.
Barbara Villani (BBAW, Berlin): Der Katenist als Autor? Beobachtungen zu Wortmeldungen des Kompilators der Palästinischen Katene zu den Psalmen.
Dimitrios Zaganas (FNRS-UCLouvain, Louvain-la-Neuve): Procopius of Gaza, the Father of the Catenae: A Double Myth.
Claudio Zamagni (Università La Sapienza, Roma): La Chaine sur Job de Nicétas d’Héraclée.
Thursday, 23 March 2023, Aula at the Campus, Spitalgasse 2, 1090 Vienna
14:00 - 14:30: Welcome, Introduction: Uta Heil, Universität Wien
14:30 - 15:30 Session 1: At the Beginning and End of the Genus "Catena"; Moderation: Uta Heil, Wien
Dimitrios Zaganas, FNRS-UCLouvain (Louvain-la-Neuve): Procopius of Gaza, the Father of the Catenae: A Double Myth.
In the past two centuries, the name of Procopius of Gaza (died ca. 528) has often been related with the origins of biblical catenae. Several scholars credited him as being the first to have compiled catenae, i.e. as the inventor of this literary genre, or at least as the earliest known compiler of catenae. Was he really the father of the catenae? F. Petit, followed by K. Metzler, proposed to dismiss the Procopian origins of the catena on Genesis. Further study of the sources used by Procopius not only corroborates this opinion, but also implies that the compiler was active after the death of the famous rhetorician of Gaza. This paper aims at showing that the epitomae and catenae ascribed to Procopius the Christian sophist were actually compiled by a later otherwise unknown author, and cannot be taken as the earliest chronologically fixed point for the production of catenae.
Claudio Zamagni, Università La Sapienza, Roma: La Chaine sur Job de Nicétas d’Héraclée.
Dans cette présentation, je voudrais illustrer les différentes familles textuelles de la Chaine sur Job de Nicétas et illustrer quelques-unes de ses spécificités par rapport aux chaines plus anciennes sur Job éditées par Ursula et Dieter Hagedorn. La recherche sur les manuscrits a montré qu’il s’agit d’un texte assez répandu et dont il existent au moins deux familles distinctes. L’hypothèse à vérifier est que cette chaine soit fondé sur la chaine plus ancienne mais avec l’ajout d’une partie de matériel provenant d’autres sources absentes de la chaine ancienne.
The Catena on Job of Niketas of Heraclea
In my paper, I would like to illustrate the different textual families of the Chain on Job by Nicetas and illustrate some of its specificities compared to the older Chain on Job edited by Ursula and Dieter Hagedorn. Direct inspection of manuscripts’ tradition has shown that this is a fairly widespread catena and that its tradition is divided in at least two families. The hypothesis to be verified is that this chain is based on the older chain but with the addition of some other exegetical material coming from other sources absent in the old chain.
15:30 - 16:00: Coffee Break
16:00 - 17:00 Session 2: Manuscripts of Catenae on Psalms; Moderation: Sebastiano Panteghini, Wien
Margherita Matera, Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen: A Little-Known Middle-Byzantine Catena Psalter: Codex Cracow, Jagiellonian Library, Berolinensis Graec. qu. 58 (Rahlfs 1039).
The term Berlinka, or Skrab Pruski (Prussian Treasure, in Polish), refers to the famous collection of books originally belonging to the Prussian State Library (Preußische Staatsbibliothek) of Berlin, and that, since the end of the Second World War, are kept in the Cracow Jagiellonian Library (Bibliotheka Jagellońska).
After the first Allied air raid on Berlin in 1941, the Prussian State Library evacuated part of its collections to save them from bombings; the collections were dispersed in various parts of the German territory, between the east and west. At the war's end, the books stored in western Germany returned to Berlin, and those held in the east suffered a different fate.
From 1941, a considerable part of the Prussian book collection was stocked in wooden boxes and then transported to different places of the Prussian Lower Silesia. After the Potsdam Conference (summer of 1945), most of Prussian Silesia Province became part of the Republic of Poland. Therefore, the Polish government declared the book collection kept there as “war reparations”. From 1946, about 505 wooden boxes containing the Skrab Pruski were transferred from the former Prussian Silesia to Cracow and then gathered in the Jagiellonian Library. One of these boxes remained stored for sixty years in the Dominican convent of the Holy Trinity in Cracow and was discovered only in 2016; it contained a heterogeneous book inventory, including twenty Greek manuscripts.
My talk will be dedicated to one of these re-discovered Greek manuscripts, the Berolinensis Graec. qu. 58 (Rahlfs 1039). I examined this manuscript in March 2022 during a cataloguing and research trip organized by the project Editio critica Maior des griechischen Psalters of the Gottingen Academy of Sciences, that I am a member of since January 2021.
The Berolinensis Graec. qu. 58 (Rahlfs 1039) is a large-sized Greek Psalter (534 ff., 225 × 174 mm), dated between the end of the 10th and the first half of the 11th centuries, coming from a Greek Island and bought in Paris in 1880. The Cracow Psalter contains the Psalms and the Odes accompanied by a frame catena commentary. The catena to the Psalms presents part of Theodoret's commentary and excerpta attributed to other exegetes. Although very interesting, the scholars did not study the catena in detail before the manuscript disappeared for sixty years. The purpose of my presentation is, therefore, to present and analyze a catena witness considered lost for a long time.
Eva Tivelli, Université de Strasbourg: Manuscripts Monac. gr. 359 and Coisl. 80: Two Examples of Catena in the Tradition of the Commentary on Psalms by Theodoret of Cyrrhus.
The Commentary on the Psalms by Theodoret of Cyrrhus is the greatest exegetical enterprise by the last exponent of the so-called “school of Antioch”. This vast commentary provides a continuous and accurate interpretation of the entire Psalter. It also represents the floruit, in the first half of the 5th century, of that exegetical tradition. The extraordinary historical and philological importance of this work is not matched by its inadequate philological conditions, as the Commentary on the Psalms is only available in outdated and pre-critical editions. In fact, this Commentary has had only two editions so far: the editio princeps by Jacques Sirmond (1642) and a rescriptio by Ludwig Schulze (1769). Sirmond based his edition on a codex optimus, but did not identify it (nor nowadays is it clear which manuscript that is – if it survives). In the 18th century, Schulze merely reprinted Sirmond's text, accompanying it with some variae lectiones taken from manuscripts now preserved in Munich, then in Augsburg. These were selected only for their immediate availability and not for their philological value. Finally, at the very beginning of the 20th century, Alfred Rahlfs and Emil Große-Brauckmann began some surveys of the direct tradition of this commentary, in order to understand to what extent the text of Theodoret would affect the text of the biblical lemmas of the Psalter (RAHLFS 1907; GROßE-BRAUCKMANN 1911). These studies achieved some interesting results, which allowed the editor to avoid many errors in his critical edition of the Psalms, but they also confirmed that the text of Theodoret has kept circulating in an unreliable form (CEULEMANS 2016). Despite its poor critical conditions, this text has a great historical significance: it is first and foremost the only continuous commentary on the Psalter from the Patristic era that has come down to us in its entirety. Because of its exegetical outlook, i.e. open to a typological-christological meaning but firmly anchored to the historical-literal datum, the work constituted for centuries the interpretative reference point of that biblical book, which has oriented Christian worship, preaching and liturgy more than any other. Moreover, the Psalter represented a crucial step towards the historical development of the canon. In fact, the Antiochian tradition, from Diodorus, to Theodore, to Theodoret, made it the key text for reconstructing the transmission of the Old Testament, from the Hebrew original to the Greek translation. It was obvious, then, that the work of Theodoret would enjoy extraordinary fortune, both in the direct and the indirect tradition. The direct tradition is represented by 81 witnesses; the indirect one is represented by a translation in Old Slavonic (LÉPISSIER 1968); another translation into Armenian (OUTTIER 1977); the formation of two alternative recensions (longior and brevior: RONDEAU 1982); the stable and diversified entry into exegetical catenae (DORIVAL 1975-2018), and even the re-use of its scholarly materials within the Byzantine encyclopedic tradition (Suda: TOSI 2000). It is precisely the great presence of this commentary within the catenae tradition that interests my presentation. As Dorival explains, particularly within the first two volumes of his study on the catenae, the commentaries and homilies in their extended forms are primary sources of the oldest type of catenae, the Palestinian catenae. The role that these catenae play within the definition of a reliable text of Theodoret's Commentary on the Psalms is yet to be defined, but they represent a crucial step in explaining the text as we read it today. They also allow scholars to start hypothesising new paths of investigation with a focus on developing of a new critical text. In order to explore the role and importance of this literary genre both within the reception of Theodoret's text and in its future critical establishment, I will advance two examples from the catenae tradition of Theodoret's Commentary on the Psalms. First, I will discuss the codex Monac. gr. 359, which is one of the three codices used by Schulze for his own rescriptio. It is also a witness of the Palestinian Catena type I (DORIVAL 1995). I will try not only to value the codex in its palaeographic and codicological aspects, but also to understand the role of its type of catena in textual history. Finally, I will consider a lesser-known codex, Coisl. 80: the manuscript, a witness of the Commentary on the Psalms, contains the text of Theodoret in its entirety, richly commented in the margins by texts by many other authors, who were protagonists of Patristic history between the 3rd and 5th centuries. Studying this codex will allow me to clarify what kind of catena it represents, and its role in establishing textual relations between the direct and indirect traditions. It will also offer some interesting insights into how the Patristic tradition connected various exponents of different exegetical currents.
17:00 - 17:30: Coffee Break
17:30 - 18:30 Session 3: Eusebius’ Commentary on the Psalms; Moderation: Annette von Stockhausen, Berlin
Cordula Bandt, BBAW (Berlin): Eusebius’ Kommentare zu Ps 51-95 in direkter Überlieferung und in den Katenen.
Als erster christlicher Autor hat Eusebius von Caesarea einen Kommentar zum gesamten Psalter geschrieben. Dieser wurde insbesondere von den Autoren der ersten, Palästinischen Psalmenkatene, aber auch von einigen späteren Katenisten ausgiebig genutzt. Der Vortrag wird an ausgewählten Beispielen die Vorgehensweise der Katenisten und deren Motivation untersuchen. Dabei werden Auszüge aus dem mittleren Teil des Kommentars, der in direkter Tradition auf uns gekommen ist, mit den entsprechenden Katenenfragmenten verglichen. Die Untersuchung steht im Zusammenhang mit der kritischen Edition des Eusebianischen Psalmenkommentars, die derzeit an der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften entsteht.
Tommaso Interi, Università degli Studi di Torino: Remarks on the Critical Edition of Eusebius’ Commentary on the Psalms (Ps 101-150).
The text of Eusebius’ Commentary on the Psalms in the 23rd and 24th volumes of the Patrologia Graeca is of unequal reliability, since it reproduces the edition published in 1707 by Bernard de Montfaucon: for Psalms 51-95,2a the text is based on a Parisian manuscript of direct tradition of the Commentary; for Psalms 1-50 and 95,2b-118 it presents the fragments ascribed to Eusebius in the catenary commentaries on the Psalter. In the last decades, critical editions of some sections of the Commentary relating to individual psalms preserved in catenae manuscripts have been published, most notably the Palestinian catena on Psalm 118 edited by Marguerite Harl in 1972, and Carmelo Curti’s edition of the same catena on Gradual Psalms (Ps 119-133) in 2003.
A team of the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften is currently working on the critical edition of the whole Commentary on the Psalms by Eusebius and has already published online a provisional critical text of the work in October 2020. In 2022, the first volume of the critical edition, comprising the section on Ps 101-150, has been published by Franz Xaver Risch (GCS NF 32, Eusebius Werke 10/3).
In this occasion, after an overview of the structure of Eusebius’ Commentary inferred by the section transmitted in direct tradition, I will focus on some case studies from the fragments on Ps 118-133, given the opportunity to compare Harl’s and Curti’s edition with the new critical text. An account of the characteristics of these editions will lead into final considerations on the criteria that modern editors have followed as to highlight the specifics of each text they edit.
Friday, 24 March 2023, Aula at the Campus, Spitalgasse 2, 1090 Vienna
09:00 - 10:30 Session 4: Creating Catenae; Moderation: Michaela Durst, Wien
Barbara Villani, BBAW (Berlin): Der Katenist als Autor? Beobachtungen zu Wortmeldungen des Kompilators der Palästinischen Katene zu den Psalmen.
Zwei Aussagen in der Palästinischen Katene, die am Ende von zwei Kyrill von Alexandrien zugeschriebenen Fragmenten stehen, wurden von einigen Forschern als Hinweis auf eine doppelte Edition des Psalmenkommentars des Euseb von Cäsarea verstanden. Ausgehend von der Klärung dieses Missverständnisses soll aufgezeigt werden, ob, wo und wie sich der Katenist in der Katene selbst zu Wort meldet. Beispiele aus der Handschrift Barocc. gr. 235 zeigen, dass Aussagen des Kompilators der Katene vermutlich durch ein eigenes Zeichen markiert worden sind. Da dies leicht übersehen oder anders interpretiert werden kann, wurden solche Textpassagen zuweilen fälschlicherweise dem Autor des vorangehenden Fragments zugewiesen.
Barbara Crostini, Uppsala University: Dramatic Psalms: Composition and Performance in Psalter Images, Texts, and Commentaries (with special reference to Vat. gr. 752 and its catena).
From within a tradition of Christian prayer, it is not possible to approach Psalms without piety, or dissociate their recitation from the rhythms of Gregorian chant and monastic office. But understanding these poetic compositions as they might have been originally framed may require a leap of the imagination. While scholia and manuscript illustrations are usually interpreted as framing this fixed and familiar Christian usage, I will argue that these material clues could instead be aids in taking that imaginative leap backwards by pointing at performative elements in the composition of the psalms. On one hand, the tradition of scholia attached to the Psalter has a definite classical pedigree as inheritor of Alexandrian scholarship in both form and contents. As such, its interest is not exhausted in intellectual speculation or didactic lore but participates of the multifaceted exegetical tools of expert readers coming to grips with texts. On the other hand, images provide specific performative cues and, at least in Vat. gr. 752 (an 11th cent. manuscript), even present characters speaking the commentary texts.
Reflecting on these elements with reference to the specific data from the Vatican manuscript, in particular, Hesychius of Jerusalem’s glosses on the titles and David’s authorship, I speculate on a similarity between Psalter scholia and tragic scholia, that leads me to consider the psalms as songs collaterally performed in rather more animated ‘liturgical’ settings than we normally credit them with. If so, scholia attest to the gradual fossilization of this book of songs as written composition. The thesis of this paper is experimental, but the audience of this specialized conference will surely provide suitable feedback to test what mileage there could be in such a hypothesis. Benefits of reading scholiae concretely rather than purely spiritually or intellectually may perhaps eventually be reaped by all.
Maria Tomadaki, Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen: The Catena Type XIV on the Psalms (CPG C27) and its Christological Aspects.
My talk is concerned with the Christological exegesis of the Psalms and specifically with its application in the catena XIV on the Psalms (CPG C27). This catena, which is preserved in two old witnesses from the 10-11th centuries (Vat. gr. 1747, Ambros. B 106 sup.), contains several Christological passages. My intention is to identify the sources of these excerpts, their exegetical approach, their theological implications, their placement in the catena, and their function as means of the Christianization of the Psalms. In this way, we can shed light on authors and texts (e.g., homilies or commentaries) that were considered appropriate for a Christological exegesis, as well as on unedited exegetical extracts, which prefigure Christ in the Psalms and are transmitted in this particular catena.
10:30 - 11:00: Coffee Break
11:00 - 12:30 Session 5: Catenae, Editions, and Digital Humanities; Moderation: Vladimir Ivanovici, Wien
Matthieu Cassin, CNRS-IRHT, Paris: How to Edit Catena on Psalms? Manuscripts, Types, Authors, Texts and Tools.
The last few decades have seen numerous works on the Psalm catenae. At the same time, editions of texts taken from the Psalm catenae, although rare, have not been totally lacking. However, contrary to what has happened with other biblical books, no edition of a complete catena on Psalms is available to the present day. The closest we currently have is the transcription of several manuscripts that is underway as part of the Expositiones in Psalmos project, which is organising this conference. Building on previous work, I will attempt to assess the reasons for this delay and consider possible solutions. On the other hand, I will outline a possible publishing model for these chains, articulating the different electronic resources already available, their possible evolutions, and considering new ones, when the existing resources are not yet sufficient.
Andrew J. Patton, University of Birmingham: The Multiplicity of Catenae and Critical Editions.
Biblical catenae were compiled as a guide to interpreting the scriptures in accordance with the insight and authority of multiple early Christian writers. The first catenae were then borrowed, adapted, and consulted along with other anthologies and directly transmitted writings to form new compilations. The resulting multiplicity of highly related catenae contributes to the perception that this is a chaotic and bewildering tradition with significant repercussions for critical editions of catenae. One view holds that each catena manuscript essentially is independent of the others, and it is futile to create critical editions of catenae because no Urtext exists. Through an examination of Greek catenae on the gospels, this paper proposes an alternative view that most catena manuscripts are copies of an already existing catena text and that significant deviations from their exemplar are usually the conscious formation of a new compilation. The implications of this characterisation of the catena tradition are that modern continuous critical editions of multiple catenae are sorely needed to adequately represent the manuscript and intellectual tradition and to enable detailed study of how the catenae developed in Late Antiquity and the early medieval period.
Volker Henning Drecoll, Universität Tübingen: Bemerkungen zur digitalen Edition von Ps.-Basilius, Enarratio in Isaiam.
Die Edition der unter dem Namen des Basilius überlieferten Jesajaerklärung stellt wegen ihrer Länge und relativ breiten Überlieferung eine besondere Herausforderung dar. Diese kann tatsächlich mit einer digitalen Edition gut angegangen werden, weil eine solche schon Ergebnisse liefert, bevor die Textkonstitution und das Schreiben der praefatio abgeschlossen sind. Allerdings ergeben sich dabei zugleich eine Reihe von Herausforderungen, insbesondere was die diplomatische Umschrift der Handschriften angeht. Dies wirft Licht auf grundlegende Herausforderungen der Arbeit mit TEI-Transkriptionen.
Das paper entwickelt daher als Leitidee für den Einsatz digitaler Arbeitsumgebungen, nicht zu überlegen, was alles im XML-Code abbildbar ist, sondern wie digitale Abbildung zu begrenzen ist, um in pragmatischer und finanzierbarer Weise zu sinnvollen Editionsergebnissen zu kommen. Die Umgebung des Patristic Text Archive der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie, innerhalb derer das Projekt verortet ist, hat sich dabei als ein flexibel einsetzbares Instrument erwiesen, um mit diesen Anforderungen zurechtzukommen.
12:30 - 14:00: Lunch
14:00 - 15:30 Session 6: The Psalter/LXX and its Reception; Moderation: Marianne Grohmann, Wien
Reinhart Ceulemans, KU Leuven: The Lexeis of the Psalms and the Catena Tradition.
In this presentation I focus on the biblical glossary (also known as Lexeis) of the Psalms. I identify two strands in the textual transmission of this work: the biblical-exegetical and the lexicographical tradition. Referring to the printed editions and to key manuscript witnesses, I compare both traditions. I interpret the results of that comparison in terms of their significance for critical research on the Lexeis. In view of the topic of the conference, I will pay particular attention to the presence of the glossary in the catena tradition of the Psalms, and to the question how we can distinguish the individual Lexeis from other philological notes on the biblical text in the catenae. In this part of the presentation, I will rely on a list I compiled of all of the “gloses lexiques” published by Gilles Dorival throughout the five volumes of Les chaînes exégétiques grecques sur les Psaumes (1974-2018).
Felix Albrecht, Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen: Der Ertrag der Catena Palestinensis für die Editio critica maior des griechischen Psalters.
This paper examines the significance of the catena Palestinensis in relation to the critical edition of the Greek Psalter, specifically in the context of the “Editio critica maior des griechischen Psalters” – a long-term project initiated by the Göttingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities in 2020. The project necessitates a comprehensive re-evaluation and identification of all textual witnesses, including the complete catena tradition, which was inadequately considered in Rahlfs’ Psalter edition. The catena Palestinensis, one of the most ancient Psalter catenae, serves as a crucial resource for reconstructing the fragmentary Hexaplaric tradition of the Psalter, as well as being an essential witness to the Biblical text itself. This significance is highlighted through a comparative analysis of the catena Palestinensis with the broader catena tradition, providing valuable insights into their relationships. In this paper, the primary textual witnesses are identified, categorized, and assessed. Through a systematic investigation, the textual character of the Biblical text of the catena Palestinensis is elucidated, revealing its text-critical value for the forthcoming edition of the Greek Psalms. Ultimately, this research underscores the importance of the catena Palestinensis not only as a means of reconstructing the Hexaplaric tradition but also as a vital source for understanding the Biblical text, thus offering significant contributions to the ongoing work on the critical edition of the Greek Psalter.
Ugo Mondini, University of Oxford: The Psalms and Manuel Philes' Metaphrasis. Rewriting, Context, and Transmission.
In the Metaphrasis of the Psalms, Manuel Philes († after 1332) rewrote 98 biblical Psalms into more than 3,600 political verses. The first complete critical edition of the text will soon be published as the key outcome of an FWF-funded project at the Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Projekt nr. I 3544-G25; P.I.: PD Dr. Andreas Rhoby), to which Anna Gioffreda and I contributed as wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter between 2018-2021.
My paper discusses two significant questions related to Philes’ Metaphrasis and its role in the history of the Greek Psalter during the Middle Ages. Although the occasion behind the composition of the Metaphrasis is unclear, Philes was commissioned to compose an unquestionably massive work, namely the rewriting of biblical Psalms into a metre and a language closer to contemporary literary practices. To show how Philes, as a Byzantine author, addressed this complex task, I display his metaphrastic procedure in rewriting Ps. 32, 46, and 47; for each of them, two different metaphraseis are preserved, and Philes’ choices in linguistic register, style, and metre can be easily compared. But is it possible to assess which text Philes read? As proven by the couplet of metaphraseis of Ps. 32, 46, and 47, it is hard to evaluate whether a specific feature is a literary choice by Philes or is based on a reading in his Vorlage. Nevertheless, I display some tendencies among these and other metaphraseis in relation to the readings that are attested in the textual transmission of the Greek Psalter.
Second, what was the purpose of Philes’ rewriting? The Greek Psalter played a crucial role in both medieval Greek education and religious life; Byzantines should have known them very well. Still, Philes’ Metaphrasis was commissioned by someone who certainly considered this kind of work needed for some reason. The necessity for rewriting the Psalter into a high-standard yet diachronically closer language and into one of the most used—and performed—medieval Greek metres (i.e., political verse) must be stressed as primary historical evidence. This need was not idiosyncratic to the commissioner or to the specific historical context of Philes’ work. In fact, the Metaphrasis was later copied from Philes’ private charts despite their work-in-progress status; in particular MPs. 108 has an even broader circulation. At the same time, Philes’ Metaphrasis is not an isolated case in the late-Byzantine period. For example, some years later, John Katakalon rewrote three biblical Psalms into political verses within an enkomion to John V Palaiologos. Conversely, in 1402, Manuel II Palaiologos wrote a short text reproducing the language and the style of a biblical Psalm in order to celebrate Timur’s victory against Bayezid at the Battle of Ankara. At the end of the paper, I offer some considerations about the role of Philes’ Metaphrasis in the complex intertwining of change in language and literature; (new) socio-cultural needs; and the late-Byzantine multifaceted use of the Bible to disentangle contemporary events.
15:30 - 16:00: Coffee Break
16:00 - 17:00 Session 7: Catenae in Comparison; Moderation: Uta Heil, Wien
Cinzia Grifoni, ÖAW (Wien): Commented Editions of the Bible from Carolingian Europe: Features, Functions and Spread.
Commented editions of the Bible, attested in Western Europe from the late 8th century onwards, represent the Latin counterpart of the Byzantine catena-commentaries. Like these, they contain a special selection of biblical interpretations produced from Late Antiquity onwards, which were rearranged as for their contents and form. Small portions of patristic and early medieval treatises were selected and adapted in their linguistic features in order to frame the biblical text as marginal annotations. Commented editions addressed either ecclesiastical or lay audiences. Accordingly, the biblical books commented upon, the exegetical depth of the annotations, the paratexts and decoration changed perceptibly from one manuscript to another.
My contribution will provide an overview of the extant commented editions and of their spread across Carolingian Europe. I will discuss their remarkable quantity in the East Frankish, i.e. German-speaking regions of the Carolingian Empire and present some examples. I will analyse which kind of exegetical treatises were used as a source, which passages were selected, how these were rearranged in their contents and linguistic features, in which cases their author was declared and, more generally, how the compilers of commented editions dealt with the concept of authority. My focus will be set on the output of the scriptorium of St. Gall, which produced commented editions of the Psalms, the Prophets and the Gospels in the second half of the ninth century.
Astrid Breith, ÖAW (Wien): Die mittel-hochdeutsche Katenen-Tradition am Beispiel der Handschrift Torun, Universitätsbibliothek, Rps 68/V.
Innerhalb der langen Tradition der mittelalterlichen gelehrten Katenen-Auslegung scheint im Spätmittelalter mit der Übertragung der Catena aurea des Thomas von Aquin aus dem Lateinischen in das Mittelhochdeutsche auch eine Bedeutungsverschiebung einher zu gehen. Die wenigen erhaltenen ostmitteldeutschen Textzeugen der Catena aurea aus dem 15. Jahrhundert scheinen nahezu alle im Auftrag des Deutschen Ordens entstanden zu sein und dienten wohl – wie es sich auch an Einzelheiten im Layout aufzeigen lässt – der Tischlesung.
Der geplante Vortrag wird zunächst einen Überblick über die Überlieferung der mittelhochdeutschen Catena aurea bieten und in einem weiteren Schritt das Übersetzungsunternehmen ‚Catena aurea‘ vor dem Hintergrund der im Deutschen Orden gepflegten Literaturproduktion beleuchten. Im Anschluss daran soll anhand von ausgewählten Beispielen aus dem Digitalisat der Handschrift Toruń, Universitätsbibliothek, Rps 68/V eine bereits bestehende gedruckte Edition vorgestellt werden.
Deriving out of the long and complex tradition of scholarly catena-manuscripts from late antique and early mediaeval times the Catena aurea by Thomas von Aquin definitively is one of the most widely transmitted compilations in the 13th century. In the late 15th century this text was almost exclusively translated on behalf of the Teutonic Order where – as textual details suggest – it was used as a text for lecture at meal times.
The proposed presentation will give an introduction into the transmission of the middle-high-German Catena aurea and situate the text within the literary tradition of the Teutonic Order of that time. Next to that a close look at selected passages will compare the details of some digitized images of the manuscript Toruń, Universitätsbibliothek, Rps 68/V and will analyze the concept of an already existing printed edition of the Gospel by Luke.
17:00 - 17:30: Coffee Break
17:30 - 18:30 Session 8: Manuscript Studies; Moderation: Volker Drecoll, Tübingen
Annette von Stockhausen, BBAW (Berlin): Severian von Gabala in Katenen.
Die Abgrenzung des homiletischen Oeuvres Severians ist immer noch eine offene Frage der Forschung: In der direkten griechischen Überlieferung sind einige wenige Homilien Severian von Gabala im Titel zugeschrieben; von der modernen Forschung wird diese Zuschreibung aber zum Teil auch als unzutreffend beurteilt (zurecht?). Die Clavis Patrum Graecorum (CPG), die weitgehend auf den Untersuchungen Voicus (in Aufnahme der älteren Forschung) beruht, hat (bereinigt) 47 Werke (sowie 18 Spuria et Dubia) unter seinem Namen. Die meisten der in der CPG aufgeführten Homilien sind dabei in der handschriftlichen Überlieferung dem Johannes Chrysostomus zugeschrieben. Neben stilistischen Argumenten spielten in der bisherigen Forschung die unter dem Namen des Severian angeführten Auszüge aus den Homilien in dogmatischen Florilegien und Katenen eine entscheidende Rolle für die Zuschreibung von Texten an Severian. In meinem Beitrag möchte ich daher einen Überblick über die Severian-Zitate in Katenen und die dadurch überhaupt bekannten (und identifizierbaren) Severian-Homilien geben (u.a. auch unter dem Aspekt, welche Homilien den Katenisten überhaupt bekannt waren) und dann erörtern, ob und inwieweit die Katenen-Überlieferung helfen kann, das Oeuvre Severians in der breiten Überlieferung spätantiker Homilien auszumachen. Dabei soll auch die Rolle digitaler Werkzeuge und Methoden besprochen werden.
Patrick Andrist, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München: Towards a Typology of Apocalypse Manuscripts: Witnesses with Systematic Commentariesas Methodological Test Cases.
This paper presents the methodology developed in the "Buchgeschichte der Johannesapokalypse: Die griechische handschriftliche Überlieferung bis zum 15. Jahrhundert" project, whose goal is to analyse the peculiar transmission of the Apocalypse from a book-historical perspective. This method is illustrated using manuscripts containing the Apocalypse with both frame and alternating commentaries.
Saturday, 25 March 2023, Aula at the Campus, Spitalgasse 2, 1090 Vienna
9:00 - 10:00 Session 9: Catenae on Romans; Moderation: Hans Förster, Wien
Jacopo Marcon, BBAW (Berlin): Framing Pauline Catenae: the Process of Selecting and Organizing the Scholia in Selected Manuscripts of the Pseudo-Oecumenian Catena on Romans.
This paper describes the evolution of the three layers of exegetical material which make up the so-called Pseudo-Oecumenian catenae and to illustrate how the different types of scholia vary over selected manuscripts of the textual tradition.1 The scholia of the Pseudo-Oecumenian catenae on the Pauline letters, and specifically on Romans, include the first original stage of numbered extracts and the second addition of unnumbered scholia. The latter, which Karl Staab called the Extravagantes/Corpus Extravagantium, can be either anonymous (with signs) or preceded by the name of the Greek Church Fathers (mostly Oecumenius, Severian of Gabala, Theodoret of Cyrrhus, and John Chrysostom).2 Additionally, a further set of scholia attributed to Photius of Constantinople and called Scholia Photiana (Staab, 1926) is added to the previous layers of comments. The present paper investigates the distribution of the exegetical scholia in these manuscripts, based on the works by Karl Staab and Theodora Panella, which were considered as starting points for the reconstruction of the manuscript tradition of the Pseudo-Oecumenian catena.3 This paper will answer the following questions. How were the Extravagantes and the Photiana integrated among the numbered extracts? Is there a rationale for the selection and distribution of the exegetical material and a consistency in the attribution of the scholia? How were the extracts from the Greek Church Fathers adapted within the context of the catena? And how much does the selection of the sources reflect the theological implications of the period or the doctrinal position of the compiler? This contribution builds on the results of my doctoral research to reconstruct the compilation technique of Pauline catenae, with a particular focus on the reuse of the exegetical material from the direct tradition, when available (e.g., Theodoret’s commentary on the Pauline Epistles, and John Chrysostom’s homilies). Finally, the paper considers how to edit the text of a catenary tradition, in view of a possible forthcoming critical edition of the Pseudo-Oecumenian catena on Romans. A recent contribution by Agnes Lorrain offers a valuable starting point on how to proceed with a critical edition of a catena including the mise en page of the manuscripts,4 and explores the difficulties and the limits of such a decision. For example, in cases where the distribution of the biblical text diverges due to the different layout of the manuscripts (frame and alternating catenae), how should the different portions of lemmata be reproduced in the critical edition? And, with regard to the evolution of the text, should only a stage of the textual tradition, namely the Erweiterte Typus comprising all the sets of the exegetical material, be considered? And, if not, how will the text of the abbreviated versions be included in relation to the other stages of the textual tradition?
1For the Erweiterte-Typus (CPG C165.3): Venice, BNM, Gr. Z. 33 (423) (GA 1923), Paris, BnF, Coislin Grec 27 (GA 1905), and Paris, BnF, Grec 219 (GA 91); for the Normaltypus, (CPG C165.1): Vatican City, BAV, Pal. Gr. 10 (GA 1997), Florence, BML, Plut. 10. 04 (GA 1919), and Milan, BA, A. 62 inf. (GA 1980); for the Auszüge aus dem Ps.-Oecumenius-Typus (CPG C165.5): Vatican City, BAV, Vat. Gr. 2062 (GA 627); for the Abridged Version’s group: Mount Athos, Ἁγίου Παύλου, 2 (GA 1862).
2K. Staab, Die Pauluskatenen nach den handschriftlichen Quellen untersucht, Rome: Scripta Pontificii Instituti Biblici, 1926.
3K. Staab, Die Pauluskatenen and K. Staab Pauluskommentare aus der Griechische Kirche: Aus Katenenhandschriften gesammelt und herausgegeben, Münster: Aschendorff, 1933. T. Panella, The Pseudo-Oecumenian Catena on Galatians, University of Birmingham, 2018.
4A. Lorrain, “Éditer les chaînes exégétiques grecques: quelle place pour le mises en page”, Byzantium 91 (2021), 219–263.
Agnès Lorrain, Centre Paul Albert Février (Aix en Provence): Der Römerbriefkommentar von Theodoret in der Katena Vaticana (Vat. gr. 762): Von Quellen- zur Katenenedition und zurück.
Bisher wird in der Katenenforschung wenig Wert auf Werke gelegt, die über eine direkte Überlieferung verfügen. Sie wurden sogar aus manchen Kateneneditionen weggeworfen. Andererseits werden in den Editionen von jenen Werken schon längst Katenenhandschriften als Textzeugen hineinbezogen. Welche Herausforderungen bringen die byzantinischen Kompilationen in dieses Feld mit sich? Wie könnten solche Editionen auch für die Katenenforschung nützlich werden? Und inwiefern ist die Katenenforschung bzw. -Edition andersherum auch als Vorarbeit zu Quelleneditionen notwendig? Solche Fragen möchte ich anhand von Theodorets Römerbriefkommentar und die Katena Vaticana zum Römerbrief (Vat. gr. 762, CPG C 160) stellen.
10:00 - 10:30: Coffee Break
10:30 - 11:30 Session 10: Catenae on Ephesians and Acts of the Apostles; Moderation: Madalina Toca
Clark Bates, University of Birmingham: Emulating the Most Wise Bee: Using the Ps. Oecumenian Catena of Ephesians as a Case Study for Critical Editions of New Testament Catenae.
In describing his selections of monastic extracts for the Pratum spirituale, the sixth-century monastic John Moschos declared that he has “emulated the most wise bee, gathering up the spiritually beneficial deeds of the Fathers” in the way a bee gathers pollen from choice flowers. On reflection, this is not unlike the work of the catenist gathering extracts for their commentary, and, by extension, it also like the work one must undergo when creating a critical edition. Each manuscript must be examined in comparison with other representatives of its type, selections must be made, and a careful reconstruction in a physical and digital medium must be produced.
As it concerns the Pauline catena tradition—broadly speaking—there are four representative “types” exnumerated by Karl Staab in 1926. These are the Typus Vaticanus, Typus Parisinus, Typus Monacensis, and the Ps. Oecumenian-Typus. Of these representatives, only the Ps. Oecumenian type is found in more than two manuscripts and thus serves as the best candidate for producing an eclectic critical edition, rather than a diplomatic edition based on a codex singulus, like J.A. Cramer’s. A popular print edition of this catena type was published by J.P. Migne but based solely on one manuscript: Paris gr 219. With close to seventy such witnesses now identified; a new critical edition of this widely duplicated catena type is greatly needed. However, even the Ps. Oecumenian catena tradition is comprised of multiple layers of scholia added in various stages between the seventh and tenth centuries. Because of this, questions regarding methodology, like those below, must be addressed before such an edition can be attempted. Using the Ps. Oecumenian catena in Ephesians as a model for a modern critical edition of a New Testament catena—considering both the discussion of Agnes Lorrain (2021) and physical layout used by Houghton and Parker (2020) as examples—this paper will discuss the practicalities of how to approach each layer of scholia for inclusion, continuity between manuscripts, addressing variant readings, and the mise en page of this material in its final form, offering suggestions for future endeavours.
Emanuele Scieri, University of Birmingham: Reclassifying the Multi-Layered Catena Manuscripts on the Acts of the Apostles.
In the context of an increasingly growing interest in New Testament catenae, the study of manuscripts with catenae on the book of Acts has undergone significant progress. The findings of the University of Birmingham’s CATENA project have recently led to the publication of the first-ever full catalogue of New Testament catenae manuscripts, as well as a revised classification of catena manuscripts on Acts. However, no satisfactory proposal has yet been made to classify manuscripts with multi-layered catenae: such is the case of Paris, BnF, Grec 237 (GA 82), Paris, BnF, Grec 216 (GA 605), Escorial, Real Biblioteca del Monasterio, Ψ.III.18 (GA 920), Drama, Μ. Κοσινίτσης, 3 (GA 1424). These codices feature catenae in frame (or marginal) layout resulting from the overlap of multiple sets of scholia, which are either transcribed by different hands or by the same scribe at different stages. Despite noticing their stratified nature, previous scholarship has associated these catenae with a single type, basing on conventional criteria of classification such as comparing exemplars in the incipit/desinit of the catena or in selected test passages. An extended survey of inc./des. of each scholium and a systematic manuscript comparison not only confirm the co-existence of different layers in the same page(s), but also enable to identify their relationship with individual compilations in other manuscripts, some of which are collections of isolated scholia, while others are epitomes of patristic works rather than catenae strictu sensu. The present paper aims to reassess the classification of these multi-layered catena manuscripts on Acts, explore various possibilities for their inclusion and reassignment in the Clavis Patrum Graecorum, and more broadly address the question of how to classify multi-layered catenae.
Discussion and Résumé
Manuscript Catenae on the Psalms: Contexts of Production and Use in Byzantium
24th International Congress of Byzantine Studies, Venice and Padua, 22-27 August 2022
Tuesday, 23 August 2022, Venice, San Giobbe Aula 7A, 17:30 – 19:30, Session: TS43
Conveners: Uta Heil, Sebastiano Panteghini, Maria-Lucia Goiana
More than eighty Greek manuscript catenae on the Psalms, dating from the 9th to the 16th century, have come down to us. The main focus of scholarship on catenae has for a long time been the recovery of Bible commentaries which were lost in the direct tradition. In more recent decades, catenae have also come to be regarded as an object of intrinsic research interest and to be edited as such. In this vein, the present discussion group aims to explore through specific case studies aspects of the production and use of catenae and of their place in the intellectual history of Byzantium. At a textual level, of particular interest are topics such as the selection of the contents of a Psalm catena, the ways in which these were re-worked, and the forms in which the scribes and subsequent readers engaged with the text, for instance through corrections and annotations. A further pathway of investigation approaches catenae in their physical aspect, as manuscripts displaying a variety of formats, page layouts, writing materials, and types of script. In this sense, palaeographical and codicological elements will be approached with the aim of shedding new light on the copyists and readers of Psalm catenae.
Catena Ante Litteram: Early Forms of Paratextuality in the Greek Manuscript Transmission of the Psalms
Felix Albrecht, Maria Tomadaki
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen
Origen From the Catenae: Two Examples
Centre Paul Albert Février (Aix en Provence)
Choix et disposition des extraits: le commentaire de Théodoret sur Romains dans la chaîne Vaticanus CPG C 160
University of Birmingham
Compilation Practices in New Testament Collections of Exegetical Excerpts
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen
An Unpublished Greek Commentary on the Psalter
Giovanni Maria Vian
Università La Sapienza di Roma
Il commento di Atanasio ai Salmi e la tradizione catenaria
Hesychios Jagić With a Catena on Its Tail (CPG C 40.16)